The Worksheet Class

The worksheet class represents an Excel worksheet. It handles operations such as writing data to cells or formatting worksheet layout.

A worksheet object isn’t instantiated directly. Instead a new worksheet is created by calling the add_worksheet() method from a Workbook() object:

workbook   = xlsxwriter.Workbook('filename.xlsx')

worksheet1 = workbook.add_worksheet()
worksheet2 = workbook.add_worksheet()

worksheet1.write('A1', 123)

workbook.close()
_images/worksheet00.png

XlsxWriter supports Excels worksheet limits of 1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns.

worksheet.write()

write(row, col, *args)

Write generic data to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • *args – The additional args that are passed to the sub methods such as number, string and cell_format.

Excel makes a distinction between data types such as strings, numbers, blanks, formulas and hyperlinks. To simplify the process of writing data to an XlsxWriter file the write() method acts as a general alias for several more specific methods:

The rules for handling data in write() are as follows:

Strings are then handled as follows:

  • Strings that start with "=" are take to match a formula and are written using write_formula(). This can be overridden, see below.
  • Strings that match supported URL types are written using write_url(). This can be overridden, see below.
  • When the Workbook() constructor strings_to_numbers option is True strings that convert to numbers using float() are written using write_number() in order to avoid Excel warnings about “Numbers Stored as Text”. See the note below.
  • Strings that don’t match any of the above criteria are written using write_string().

If none of the above types are matched the value is evaluated with float() to see if it corresponds to a user defined float type. If it does then it is written using write_number().

Finally, if none of these rules are matched then a TypeError exception is raised.

Here are some examples:

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Hello')          # write_string()
worksheet.write(1, 0, 'World')          # write_string()
worksheet.write(2, 0, 2)                # write_number()
worksheet.write(3, 0, 3.00001)          # write_number()
worksheet.write(4, 0, '=SIN(PI()/4)')   # write_formula()
worksheet.write(5, 0, '')               # write_blank()
worksheet.write(6, 0, None)             # write_blank()

This creates a worksheet like the following:

_images/worksheet01.png

Note

The Workbook() constructor option takes three optional arguments that can be used to override string handling in the write() function. These options are shown below with their default values:

xlsxwriter.Workbook(filename, {'strings_to_numbers':  False,
                               'strings_to_formulas': True,
                               'strings_to_urls':     True})

The write() method supports two forms of notation to designate the position of cells: Row-column notation and A1 notation:

# These are equivalent.
worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Hello')
worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')

See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter in the sub write methods is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present it should be a valid Format object:

cell_format = workbook.add_format({'bold': True, 'italic': True})

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Hello', cell_format)  # Cell is bold and italic.

worksheet.write_string()

write_string(row, col, string[, cell_format])

Write a string to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • string (string) – String to write to cell.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_string() method writes a string to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_string(0, 0, 'Your text here')
worksheet.write_string('A2', 'or here')

Both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present is should be a valid Format object.

Unicode strings are supported in UTF-8 encoding. This generally requires that your source file in also UTF-8 encoded:

# _*_ coding: utf-8

worksheet.write('A1', u'Some UTF-8 text')
_images/worksheet02.png

Alternatively, you can read data from an encoded file, convert it to UTF-8 during reading and then write the data to an Excel file. There are several sample``unicode_*.py`` programs like this in the examples directory of the XlsxWriter source tree.

The maximum string size supported by Excel is 32,767 characters. Strings longer than this will be truncated by write_string().

Note

Even though Excel allows strings of 32,767 characters it can only display 1000 in a cell. However, all 32,767 characters are displayed in the formula bar.

worksheet.write_number()

write_number(row, col, number[, cell_format])

Write a number to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • number (int or float) – Number to write to cell.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_number() method writes numeric types to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_number(0, 0, 123456)
worksheet.write_number('A2', 2.3451)

The numeric types supported are float, int, long, decimal.Decimal and fractions.Fraction or anything that can be converted via float().

When written to an Excel file numbers are converted to IEEE-754 64-bit double-precision floating point. This means that, in most cases, the maximum number of digits that can be stored in Excel without losing precision is 15.

Note

NAN and INF are not supported and will raise a TypeError exception.

Both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present is should be a valid Format object.

worksheet.write_formula()

write_formula(row, col, formula[, cell_format[, value]])

Write a formula to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • formula (string) – Formula to write to cell.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.
  • value – Optional result. The value if the formula was calculated.

The write_formula() method writes a formula or function to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_formula(0, 0, '=B3 + B4')
worksheet.write_formula(1, 0, '=SIN(PI()/4)')
worksheet.write_formula(2, 0, '=SUM(B1:B5)')
worksheet.write_formula('A4', '=IF(A3>1,"Yes", "No")')
worksheet.write_formula('A5', '=AVERAGE(1, 2, 3, 4)')
worksheet.write_formula('A6', '=DATEVALUE("1-Jan-2013")')

Array formulas are also supported:

worksheet.write_formula('A7', '{=SUM(A1:B1*A2:B2)}')

See also the write_array_formula() method below.

Both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present is should be a valid Format object.

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated result of the formula using the optional value parameter. This is occasionally necessary when working with non-Excel applications that don’t calculate the result of the formula:

worksheet.write('A1', '=2+2', num_format, 4)

See Formula Results for more details.

Excel stores formulas in US style formatting regardless of the Locale or Language of the Excel version:

worksheet.write_formula('A1', '=SUM(1, 2, 3)')    # OK
worksheet.write_formula('A2', '=SOMME(1, 2, 3)')  # French. Error on load.

See Non US Excel functions and syntax for a full explanation.

Excel 2010 and 2013 added functions which weren’t defined in the original file specification. These functions are referred to as future functions. Examples of these functions are ACOT, CHISQ.DIST.RT , CONFIDENCE.NORM, STDEV.P, STDEV.S and WORKDAY.INTL. In XlsxWriter these require a prefix:

worksheet.write_formula('A1', '=_xlfn.STDEV.S(B1:B10)')

See Formulas added in Excel 2010 and later for a detailed explanation and full list of functions that are affected.

worksheet.write_array_formula()

write_array_formula(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, formula[, cell_format[, value]])

Write an array formula to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.
  • formula (string) – Array formula to write to cell.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.
  • value – Optional result. The value if the formula was calculated.

The write_array_formula() method writes an array formula to a cell range. In Excel an array formula is a formula that performs a calculation on a set of values. It can return a single value or a range of values.

An array formula is indicated by a pair of braces around the formula: {=SUM(A1:B1*A2:B2)}.

For array formulas that return a range of values you must specify the range that the return values will be written to:

worksheet.write_array_formula('A1:A3',    '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}')
worksheet.write_array_formula(0, 0, 2, 0, '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}')

If the array formula returns a single value then the first_ and last_ parameters should be the same:

worksheet.write_array_formula('A1:A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}')

It this case however it is easier to just use the write_formula() or write() methods:

# Same as above but more concise.
worksheet.write('A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}')
worksheet.write_formula('A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}')

As shown above, both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present is should be a valid Format object.

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated result of the formula (see discussion of formulas and the value parameter for the write_formula() method above). However, using this parameter only writes a single value to the upper left cell in the result array. See Formula Results for more details.

See also Example: Array formulas.

worksheet.write_blank()

write_blank(row, col, blank[, cell_format])

Write a blank worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • blank – None or empty string. The value is ignored.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

Write a blank cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_blank(0, 0, None, format)

This method is used to add formatting to a cell which doesn’t contain a string or number value.

Excel differentiates between an “Empty” cell and a “Blank” cell. An “Empty” cell is a cell which doesn’t contain data or formatting whilst a “Blank” cell doesn’t contain data but does contain formatting. Excel stores “Blank” cells but ignores “Empty” cells.

As such, if you write an empty cell without formatting it is ignored:

worksheet.write('A1', None, format)  # write_blank()
worksheet.write('A2', None)          # Ignored

This seemingly uninteresting fact means that you can write arrays of data without special treatment for None or empty string values.

As shown above, both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

worksheet.write_boolean()

write_boolean(row, col, boolean[, cell_format])

Write a boolean value to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • boolean (bool) – Boolean value to write to cell.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_boolean() method writes a boolean value to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_boolean(0, 0, True)
worksheet.write_boolean('A2', False)

Both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional but when present is should be a valid Format object.

worksheet.write_datetime()

write_datetime(row, col, datetime[, cell_format])

Write a date or time to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • datetime (datetime) – A datetime.datetime, .date, .time or .delta object.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_datetime() method can be used to write a date or time to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_datetime(0, 0, datetime, date_format)

The datetime should be a datetime.datetime, datetime.date datetime.time or datetime.timedelta object. The datetime class is part of the standard Python libraries.

There are many ways to create datetime objects, for example the datetime.datetime.strptime() method:

date_time = datetime.datetime.strptime('2013-01-23', '%Y-%m-%d')

See the datetime documentation for other date/time creation methods.

A date/time should have a cell_format of type Format, otherwise it will appear as a number:

date_format = workbook.add_format({'num_format': 'd mmmm yyyy'})

worksheet.write_datetime('A1', date_time, date_format)

If required, a default date format string can be set using the Workbook() constructor default_date_format option.

See Working with Dates and Time for more details and also Timezone Handling in XlsxWriter.

worksheet.write_url()

write_url(row, col, url[, cell_format[, string[, tip]]])

Write a hyperlink to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • url (string) – Hyperlink url.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object. Defaults to the Excel hyperlink style.
  • string (string) – An optional display string for the hyperlink.
  • tip (string) – An optional tooltip.

The write_url() method is used to write a hyperlink in a worksheet cell. The url is comprised of two elements: the displayed string and the non-displayed link. The displayed string is the same as the link unless an alternative string is specified.

Both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The cell_format parameter is used to apply formatting to the cell. This parameter is optional. Since a hyperlink without a format doesn’t look like a link the following default Excel hyperlink style is used. If required you can access this format as:

worksheet.default_url_format

Four web style URI’s are supported: http://, https://, ftp:// and mailto::

worksheet.write_url('A1', 'ftp://www.python.org/')
worksheet.write_url('A2', 'http://www.python.org/')
worksheet.write_url('A3', 'https://www.python.org/')
worksheet.write_url('A4', 'mailto:jmcnamara@cpan.org')

All of the these URI types are recognized by the write() method, so the following are equivalent:

worksheet.write_url('A2', 'http://www.python.org/')
worksheet.write    ('A2', 'http://www.python.org/')  # Same.

You can display an alternative string using the string parameter:

worksheet.write_url('A1', 'http://www.python.org', string='Python home')

Note

If you wish to have some other cell data such as a number or a formula you can overwrite the cell using another call to write_*():

worksheet.write_url('A1', 'http://www.python.org/')

# Overwrite the URL string with a formula. The cell is still a link.
worksheet.write_formula('A1', '=1+1', worksheet.default_url_format)

There are two local URIs supported: internal: and external:. These are used for hyperlinks to internal worksheet references or external workbook and worksheet references:

# Link to a cell on the current worksheet.
worksheet.write_url('A1',  'internal:Sheet2!A1')

# Link to a cell on another worksheet.
worksheet.write_url('A2',  'internal:Sheet2!A1:B2')

# Worksheet names with spaces should be single quoted like in Excel.
worksheet.write_url('A3',  "internal:'Sales Data'!A1")

# Link to another Excel workbook.
worksheet.write_url('A4', r'external:c:\temp\foo.xlsx')

# Link to a worksheet cell in another workbook.
worksheet.write_url('A5', r'external:c:\foo.xlsx#Sheet2!A1')

# Link to a worksheet in another workbook with a relative link.
worksheet.write_url('A7', r'external:..\foo.xlsx#Sheet2!A1')

# Link to a worksheet in another workbook with a network link.
worksheet.write_url('A8', r'external:\\NET\share\foo.xlsx')

Worksheet references are typically of the form Sheet1!A1. You can also link to a worksheet range using the standard Excel notation: Sheet1!A1:B2.

In external links the workbook and worksheet name must be separated by the # character: external:Workbook.xlsx#Sheet1!A1'.

You can also link to a named range in the target worksheet. For example say you have a named range called my_name in the workbook c:\temp\foo.xlsx you could link to it as follows:

worksheet.write_url('A14', r'external:c:\temp\foo.xlsx#my_name')

Excel requires that worksheet names containing spaces or non alphanumeric characters are single quoted as follows 'Sales Data'!A1.

Links to network files are also supported. Network files normally begin with two back slashes as follows \\NETWORK\etc. In order to generate this in a single or double quoted string you will have to escape the backslashes, '\\\\NETWORK\\etc' or use a raw string r'\\NETWORK\etc'.

Alternatively, you can avoid most of these quoting problems by using forward slashes. These are translated internally to backslashes:

worksheet.write_url('A14', "external:c:/temp/foo.xlsx")
worksheet.write_url('A15', 'external://NETWORK/share/foo.xlsx')

See also Example: Adding hyperlinks.

Note

XlsxWriter will escape the following characters in URLs as required by Excel: \s " < > \ [ ] ` ^ { } unless the URL already contains %xx style escapes. In which case it is assumed that the URL was escaped correctly by the user and will by passed directly to Excel.

Note

Excel limits hyperlink links and anchor/locations to 255 characters each.

worksheet.write_rich_string()

write_rich_string(row, col, *string_parts[, cell_format])

Write a “rich” string with multiple formats to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • string_parts (list) – String and format pairs.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_rich_string() method is used to write strings with multiple formats. For example to write the string “This is bold and this is italic” you would use the following:

bold   = workbook.add_format({'bold': True})
italic = workbook.add_format({'italic': True})

worksheet.write_rich_string('A1',
                            'This is ',
                            bold, 'bold',
                            ' and this is ',
                            italic, 'italic')
_images/rich_strings_small.png

The basic rule is to break the string into fragments and put a Format object before the fragment that you want to format. For example:

# Unformatted string.
'This is an example string'

# Break it into fragments.
'This is an ', 'example', ' string'

# Add formatting before the fragments you want formatted.
'This is an ', format, 'example', ' string'

# In XlsxWriter.
worksheet.write_rich_string('A1',
                            'This is an ', format, 'example', ' string')

String fragments that don’t have a format are given a default format. So for example when writing the string “Some bold text” you would use the first example below but it would be equivalent to the second:

# Some bold format and a default format.
bold    = workbook.add_format({'bold': True})
default = workbook.add_format()

# With default formatting:
worksheet.write_rich_string('A1',
                            'Some ',
                            bold, 'bold',
                            ' text')

# Or more explicitly:
worksheet.write_rich_string('A1',
                             default, 'Some ',
                             bold,    'bold',
                             default, ' text')

In Excel only the font properties of the format such as font name, style, size, underline, color and effects are applied to the string fragments in a rich string. Other features such as border, background, text wrap and alignment must be applied to the cell.

The write_rich_string() method allows you to do this by using the last argument as a cell format (if it is a format object). The following example centers a rich string in the cell:

bold   = workbook.add_format({'bold': True})
center = workbook.add_format({'align': 'center'})

worksheet.write_rich_string('A5',
                            'Some ',
                            bold, 'bold text',
                            ' centered',
                            center)

See also Example: Writing “Rich” strings with multiple formats and Example: Merging Cells with a Rich String.

worksheet.write_row()

write_row(row, col, data[, cell_format])

Write a row of data starting from (row, col).

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • data – Cell data to write. Variable types.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_row() method can be used to write a list of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. The write() method is called for each element of the data. For example:

# Some sample data.
data = ('Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz')

# Write the data to a sequence of cells.
worksheet.write_row('A1', data)

# The above example is equivalent to:
worksheet.write('A1', data[0])
worksheet.write('B1', data[1])
worksheet.write('C1', data[2])

worksheet.write_column()

write_column(row, col, data[, cell_format])

Write a column of data starting from (row, col).

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • data – Cell data to write. Variable types.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The write_column() method can be used to write a list of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. The write() method is called for each element of the data. For example:

# Some sample data.
data = ('Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz')

# Write the data to a sequence of cells.
worksheet.write_column('A1', data)

# The above example is equivalent to:
worksheet.write('A1', data[0])
worksheet.write('A2', data[1])
worksheet.write('A3', data[2])

worksheet.set_row()

set_row(row, height, cell_format, options)

Set properties for a row of cells.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The worksheet row (zero indexed).
  • height (float) – The row height.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.
  • options (dict) – Optional row parameters: hidden, level, collapsed.

The set_row() method is used to change the default properties of a row. The most common use for this method is to change the height of a row:

worksheet.set_row(0, 20)  # Set the height of Row 1 to 20.

The other common use for set_row() is to set the Format for all cells in the row:

cell_format = workbook.add_format({'bold': True})

worksheet.set_row(0, 20, cell_format)

If you wish to set the format of a row without changing the height you can pass None as the height parameter or use the default row height of 15:

worksheet.set_row(1, None, cell_format)
worksheet.set_row(1, 15,   cell_format)  # Same as above.

The cell_format parameter will be applied to any cells in the row that don’t have a format. As with Excel it is overridden by an explicit cell format. For example:

worksheet.set_row(0, None, format1)      # Row 1 has format1.

worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')           # Cell A1 defaults to format1.
worksheet.write('B1', 'Hello', format2)  # Cell B1 keeps format2.

The options parameter is a dictionary with the following possible keys:

  • 'hidden'
  • 'level'
  • 'collapsed'

Options can be set as follows:

worksheet.set_row(0, 20, cell_format, {'hidden': True})

# Or use defaults for other properties and set the options only.
worksheet.set_row(0, None, None, {'hidden': True})

The 'hidden' option is used to hide a row. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

worksheet.set_row(0, 20, cell_format, {'hidden': True})

The 'level' parameter is used to set the outline level of the row. Outlines are described in Working with Outlines and Grouping. Adjacent rows with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for some rows:

worksheet.set_row(0, None, None, {'level': 1})
worksheet.set_row(1, None, None, {'level': 1})
worksheet.set_row(2, None, None, {'level': 1})

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. The 'level' parameter should be in the range 0 <= level <= 7.

The 'hidden' parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined rows when used in conjunction with the 'level' parameter:

worksheet.set_row(1, None, None, {'hidden': 1, 'level': 1})
worksheet.set_row(2, None, None, {'hidden': 1, 'level': 1})

The 'collapsed' parameter is used in collapsed outlines to indicate which row has the collapsed '+' symbol:

worksheet.set_row(3, None, None, {'collapsed': 1})

worksheet.set_column()

set_column(first_col, last_col, width, cell_format, options)

Set properties for one or more columns of cells.

Parameters:
  • first_col (int) – First column (zero-indexed).
  • last_col (int) – Last column (zero-indexed). Can be same as firstcol.
  • width (float) – The width of the column(s).
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.
  • options (dict) – Optional parameters: hidden, level, collapsed.

The set_column() method can be used to change the default properties of a single column or a range of columns:

worksheet.set_column(1, 3, 30)  # Width of columns B:D set to 30.

If set_column() is applied to a single column the value of first_col and last_col should be the same:

worksheet.set_column(1, 1, 30)  # Width of column B set to 30.

It is also possible, and generally clearer, to specify a column range using the form of A1 notation used for columns. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

Examples:

worksheet.set_column(0, 0, 20)   # Column  A   width set to 20.
worksheet.set_column(1, 3, 30)   # Columns B-D width set to 30.
worksheet.set_column('E:E', 20)  # Column  E   width set to 20.
worksheet.set_column('F:H', 30)  # Columns F-H width set to 30.

The width parameter sets the column width in the same units used by Excel which is: the number of characters in the default font. The default width is 8.43 in the default font of Calibri 11. The actual relationship between a string width and a column width in Excel is complex. See the following explanation of column widths from the Microsoft support documentation for more details.

There is no way to specify “AutoFit” for a column in the Excel file format. This feature is only available at runtime from within Excel. It is possible to simulate “AutoFit” in your application by tracking the maximum width of the data in the column as your write it and then adjusting the column width at the end.

As usual the cell_format Format parameter is optional. If you wish to set the format without changing the width you can pass None as the width parameter:

cell_format = workbook.add_format({'bold': True})

worksheet.set_column(0, 0, None, cell_format)

The cell_format parameter will be applied to any cells in the column that don’t have a format. For example:

worksheet.set_column('A:A', None, format1)  # Col 1 has format1.

worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')              # Cell A1 defaults to format1.
worksheet.write('A2', 'Hello', format2)     # Cell A2 keeps format2.

A row format takes precedence over a default column format:

worksheet.set_row(0, None, format1)         # Set format for row 1.
worksheet.set_column('A:A', None, format2)  # Set format for col 1.

worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')              # Defaults to format1
worksheet.write('A2', 'Hello')              # Defaults to format2

The options parameter is a dictionary with the following possible keys:

  • 'hidden'
  • 'level'
  • 'collapsed'

Options can be set as follows:

worksheet.set_column('D:D', 20, cell_format, {'hidden': 1})

# Or use defaults for other properties and set the options only.
worksheet.set_column('E:E', None, None, {'hidden': 1})

The 'hidden' option is used to hide a column. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

worksheet.set_column('D:D', 20,  cell_format, {'hidden': 1})

The 'level' parameter is used to set the outline level of the column. Outlines are described in Working with Outlines and Grouping. Adjacent columns with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for columns B to G:

worksheet.set_column('B:G', None, None, {'level': 1})

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. The 'level' parameter should be in the range 0 <= level <= 7.

The 'hidden' parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined columns when used in conjunction with the 'level' parameter:

worksheet.set_column('B:G', None, None, {'hidden': 1, 'level': 1})

The 'collapsed' parameter is used in collapsed outlines to indicate which column has the collapsed '+' symbol:

worksheet.set_column('H:H', None, None, {'collapsed': 1})

worksheet.insert_image()

insert_image(row, col, image[, options])

Insert an image in a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • image (string) – Image filename (with path if required).
  • options (dict) – Optional parameters for image position, scale and url.

This method can be used to insert a image into a worksheet. The image can be in PNG, JPEG or BMP format:

worksheet.insert_image('B2', 'python.png')
_images/insert_image.png

A file path can be specified with the image name:

worksheet1.insert_image('B10', '../images/python.png')
worksheet2.insert_image('B20', r'c:\images\python.png')

The insert_image() method takes optional parameters in a dictionary to position and scale the image. The available parameters with their default values are:

{
    'x_offset':    0,
    'y_offset':    0,
    'x_scale':     1,
    'y_scale':     1,
    'url':         None,
    'tip':         None,
    'image_data':  None,
    'positioning': None,
}

The offset values are in pixels:

worksheet1.insert_image('B2', 'python.png', {'x_offset': 15, 'y_offset': 10})

The offsets can be greater than the width or height of the underlying cell. This can be occasionally useful if you wish to align two or more images relative to the same cell.

The x_scale and y_scale parameters can be used to scale the image horizontally and vertically:

worksheet.insert_image('B3', 'python.png', {'x_scale': 0.5, 'y_scale': 0.5})

The url parameter can used to add a hyperlink/url to the image. The tip parameter gives an option mouseover tooltip for images with hyperlinks:

worksheet.insert_image('B4', 'python.png', {'url': 'http://python.org'})

See also write_url() for details on supported URIs.

The image_data parameter is used to add an in-memory byte stream in io.BytesIO format:

worksheet.insert_image('B5', 'python.png', {'image_data': image_data})

This is generally used for inserting images from URLs:

url = 'http://python.org/logo.png'
image_data = io.BytesIO(urllib2.urlopen(url).read())

worksheet.insert_image('B5', url, {'image_data': image_data})

When using the image_data parameter a filename must still be passed to insert_image() since it is required by Excel. In the previous example the filename is extracted from the URL string. See also Example: Inserting images from a URL or byte stream into a worksheet.

The positioning parameter can be used to control the object positioning of the image:

worksheet.insert_image('B3', 'python.png', {'positioning': 1})

Where positioning has the following allowable values:

  1. Move and size with cells.
  2. Move but don’t size with cells (the default).
  3. Don’t move or size with cells.

Note

The scaling of a image may be affected if is crosses a row that has its default height changed due to a font that is larger than the default font size or that has text wrapping turned on. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using set_row() if it crosses an inserted image.

BMP images are only supported for backward compatibility. In general it is best to avoid BMP images since they aren’t compressed. If used, BMP images must be 24 bit, true color, bitmaps.

See also Example: Inserting images into a worksheet.

worksheet.insert_chart()

insert_chart(row, col, chart[, options])

Write a string to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • chart – A chart object.
  • options (dict) – Optional parameters to position and scale the chart.

This method can be used to insert a chart into a worksheet. A chart object is created via the Workbook add_chart() method where the chart type is specified:

chart = workbook.add_chart({type, 'column'})

It is then inserted into a worksheet as an embedded chart:

worksheet.insert_chart('B5', chart)
_images/chart_simple.png

Note

A chart can only be inserted into a worksheet once. If several similar charts are required then each one must be created separately with add_chart().

See The Chart Class, Working with Charts and Chart Examples.

The insert_chart() method takes optional parameters in a dictionary to position and scale the chart. The available parameters with their default values are:

{
    'x_offset': 0,
    'y_offset': 0,
    'x_scale':  1,
    'y_scale':  1,
}

The offset values are in pixels:

worksheet.insert_chart('B5', chart, {'x_offset': 25, 'y_offset': 10})

The x_scale and y_scale parameters can be used to scale the chart horizontally and vertically:

worksheet.insert_chart('B5', chart, {'x_scale': 0.5, 'y_scale': 0.5})

These properties can also be set via the Chart set_size() method.

Note

The scaling of a chart may be affected if is crosses a row that has its default height changed due to a font that is larger than the default font size or that has text wrapping turned on. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using set_row() if it crosses an inserted chart.

worksheet.insert_textbox()

insert_textbox(row, col, textbox[, options])

Write a string to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • text (string) – The text in the textbox.
  • options (dict) – Optional parameters to position and scale the textbox.

This method can be used to insert a textbox into a worksheet:

worksheet.insert_textbox('B2', 'A simple textbox with some text')
_images/textbox03.png

The size and formatting of the textbox can be controlled via the options dict:

# Size and position
width
height
x_scale
y_scale
x_offset
y_offset

# Formatting
line
border
fill
gradient
font
align

These options are explained in more detail in the Working with Textboxes section.

See also Example: Insert Textboxes into a Worksheet.

Note

The scaling of a textbox may be affected if is crosses a row that has its default height changed due to a font that is larger than the default font size or that has text wrapping turned on. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using set_row() if it crosses an inserted chart.

worksheet.insert_button()

insert_button(row, col[, options])

Insert a VBA button control on a worksheet.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • options (dict) – Optional parameters to position and scale the button.

The insert_button() method can be used to insert an Excel form button into a worksheet.

This method is generally only useful when used in conjunction with the Workbook add_vba_project() method to tie the button to a macro from an embedded VBA project:

# Add the VBA project binary.
workbook.add_vba_project('./vbaProject.bin')

# Add a button tied to a macro in the VBA project.
worksheet.insert_button('B3',{'macro':   'say_hello',
                              'caption': 'Press Me'})
_images/macros.png

See Working with VBA Macros and Example: Adding a VBA macro to a Workbook for more details.

The insert_button() method takes optional parameters in a dictionary to position and scale the chart. The available parameters with their default values are:

{
    'macro':    None,
    'caption':  'Button 1',
    'width':    64,
    'height':   20.
    'x_offset': 0,
    'y_offset': 0,
    'x_scale':  1,
    'y_scale':  1,
}

The macro option is used to set the macro that the button will invoke when the user clicks on it. The macro should be included using the Workbook add_vba_project() method shown above.

The caption is used to set the caption on the button. The default is Button n where n is the button number.

The default button width is 64 pixels which is the width of a default cell and the default button height is 20 pixels which is the height of a default cell.

The offset and scale options are the same as for insert_chart(), see above.

worksheet.data_validation()

data_validation(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, options)

Write a conditional format to range of cells.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.
  • options (dict) – Data validation options.

The data_validation() method is used to construct an Excel data validation or to limit the user input to a dropdown list of values:

worksheet.data_validation('B3', {'validate': 'integer',
                                 'criteria': 'between',
                                 'minimum': 1,
                                 'maximum': 10})


worksheet.data_validation('B13', {'validate': 'list',
                                  'source': ['open', 'high', 'close']})
_images/data_validate1.png

The data validation can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. As usual you can use A1 or Row/Column notation, see Working with Cell Notation.

With Row/Column notation you must specify all four cells in the range: (first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col). If you need to refer to a single cell set the last_ values equal to the first_ values. With A1 notation you can refer to a single cell or a range of cells:

worksheet.data_validation(0, 0, 4, 1, {...})
worksheet.data_validation('B1',       {...})
worksheet.data_validation('C1:E5',    {...})

The options parameter in data_validation() must be a dictionary containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the data validation. There are a lot of available options which are described in detail in a separate section: Working with Data Validation. See also Example: Data Validation and Drop Down Lists.

worksheet.conditional_format()

conditional_format(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, options)

Write a conditional format to range of cells.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.
  • options (dict) – Conditional formatting options.

The conditional_format() method is used to add formatting to a cell or range of cells based on user defined criteria:

worksheet.conditional_format('B3:K12', {'type':     'cell',
                                        'criteria': '>=',
                                        'value':    50,
                                        'format':   format1})
_images/conditional_format1.png

The conditional format can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. As usual you can use A1 or Row/Column notation, see Working with Cell Notation.

With Row/Column notation you must specify all four cells in the range: (first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col). If you need to refer to a single cell set the last_ values equal to the first_ values. With A1 notation you can refer to a single cell or a range of cells:

worksheet.conditional_format(0, 0, 4, 1, {...})
worksheet.conditional_format('B1',       {...})
worksheet.conditional_format('C1:E5',    {...})

The options parameter in conditional_format() must be a dictionary containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the conditional format. There are a lot of available options which are described in detail in a separate section: Working with Conditional Formatting. See also Example: Conditional Formatting.

worksheet.add_table()

add_table(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, options)

Add an Excel table to a worksheet.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.
  • options (dict) – Table formatting options. (Optional)

The add_table() method is used to group a range of cells into an Excel Table:

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', { ... })

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in Working with Worksheet Tables.

See also Example: Worksheet Tables.

Note

Tables aren’t available in XlsxWriter when Workbook() 'constant_memory' mode is enabled.

worksheet.add_sparkline()

add_sparkline(row, col, options)
Add sparklines to a worksheet.
Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • options (dict) – Sparkline formatting options.

Sparklines are small charts that fit in a single cell and are used to show trends in data.

_images/sparklines1.png

The add_sparkline() worksheet method is used to add sparklines to a cell or a range of cells:

worksheet.add_sparkline('F1', {'range': 'A1:E1'})

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in Working with Sparklines.

See also Example: Sparklines (Simple) and Example: Sparklines (Advanced).

Note

Sparklines are a feature of Excel 2010+ only. You can write them to an XLSX file that can be read by Excel 2007 but they won’t be displayed.

worksheet.write_comment()

write_comment(row, col, comment[, options])

Write a comment to a worksheet cell.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • comment (string) – String to write to cell.
  • options (dict) – Comment formatting options.

The write_comment() method is used to add a comment to a cell. A comment is indicated in Excel by a small red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of the cell. Moving the cursor over the red triangle will reveal the comment.

The following example shows how to add a comment to a cell:

worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')
worksheet.write_comment('A1', 'This is a comment')
_images/comments1.png

As usual you can replace the row and col parameters with an A1 cell reference. See Working with Cell Notation for more details.

The properties of the cell comment can be modified by passing an optional dictionary of key/value pairs to control the format of the comment. For example:

worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', {'x_scale': 1.2, 'y_scale': 0.8})

Most of these options are quite specific and in general the default comment behavior will be all that you need. However, should you need greater control over the format of the cell comment the following options are available:

author
visible
x_scale
width
y_scale
height
color
start_cell
start_row
start_col
x_offset
y_offset

For more details see Working with Cell Comments and Example: Adding Cell Comments to Worksheets (Advanced) .

worksheet.show_comments()

show_comments()

Make any comments in the worksheet visible.

This method is used to make all cell comments visible when a worksheet is opened:

worksheet.show_comments()

Individual comments can be made visible using the visible parameter of the write_comment method (see above):

worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', {'visible': True})

If all of the cell comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments as follows:

worksheet.show_comments()
worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', {'visible': False})

For more details see Working with Cell Comments and Example: Adding Cell Comments to Worksheets (Advanced) .

worksheet.set_comments_author()

set_comments_author(author)

Set the default author of the cell comments.

Parameters:author (string) – Comment author.

This method is used to set the default author of all cell comments:

worksheet.set_comments_author('John Smith')

Individual comment authors can be set using the author parameter of the write_comment method (see above).

If no author is specified the default comment author name is an empty string.

For more details see Working with Cell Comments and Example: Adding Cell Comments to Worksheets (Advanced) .

worksheet.get_name()

get_name()

Retrieve the worksheet name.

The get_name() method is used to retrieve the name of a worksheet. This is something useful for debugging or logging:

for worksheet in workbook.worksheets():
    print worksheet.get_name()

There is no set_name() method. The only safe way to set the worksheet name is via the add_worksheet() method.

worksheet.activate()

activate()

Make a worksheet the active, i.e., visible worksheet.

The activate() method is used to specify which worksheet is initially visible in a multi-sheet workbook:

worksheet1 = workbook.add_worksheet()
worksheet2 = workbook.add_worksheet()
worksheet3 = workbook.add_worksheet()

worksheet3.activate()
_images/worksheet_activate.png

More than one worksheet can be selected via the select() method, see below, however only one worksheet can be active.

The default active worksheet is the first worksheet.

worksheet.select()

select()

Set a worksheet tab as selected.

The select() method is used to indicate that a worksheet is selected in a multi-sheet workbook:

worksheet1.activate()
worksheet2.select()
worksheet3.select()

A selected worksheet has its tab highlighted. Selecting worksheets is a way of grouping them together so that, for example, several worksheets could be printed in one go. A worksheet that has been activated via the activate() method will also appear as selected.

worksheet.hide()

hide()

Hide the current worksheet.

The hide() method is used to hide a worksheet:

worksheet2.hide()

You may wish to hide a worksheet in order to avoid confusing a user with intermediate data or calculations.

_images/hide_sheet.png

A hidden worksheet can not be activated or selected so this method is mutually exclusive with the activate() and select() methods. In addition, since the first worksheet will default to being the active worksheet, you cannot hide the first worksheet without activating another sheet:

worksheet2.activate()
worksheet1.hide()

See Example: Hiding Worksheets for more details.

worksheet.set_first_sheet()

set_first_sheet()

Set current worksheet as the first visible sheet tab.

The activate() method determines which worksheet is initially selected. However, if there are a large number of worksheets the selected worksheet may not appear on the screen. To avoid this you can select which is the leftmost visible worksheet tab using set_first_sheet():

for in range(1, 21):
    workbook.add_worksheet

worksheet19.set_first_sheet()  # First visible worksheet tab.
worksheet20.activate()         # First visible worksheet.

This method is not required very often. The default value is the first worksheet.

worksheet.merge_range()

merge_range(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, data[, cell_format])

Merge a range of cells.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.
  • data – Cell data to write. Variable types.
  • cell_format (Format) – Optional Format object.

The merge_range() method allows cells to be merged together so that they act as a single area.

Excel generally merges and centers cells at same time. To get similar behavior with XlsxWriter you need to apply a Format:

merge_format = workbook.add_format({'align': 'center'})

worksheet.merge_range('B3:D4', 'Merged Cells', merge_format)

It is possible to apply other formatting to the merged cells as well:

merge_format = workbook.add_format({
    'bold':     True,
    'border':   6,
    'align':    'center',
    'valign':   'vcenter',
    'fg_color': '#D7E4BC',
})

worksheet.merge_range('B3:D4', 'Merged Cells', merge_format)
_images/merge_range.png

See Example: Merging Cells for more details.

The merge_range() method writes its data argument using write(). Therefore it will handle numbers, strings and formulas as usual. If this doesn’t handle your data correctly then you can overwrite the first cell with a call to one of the other write_*() methods using the same Format as in the merged cells. See Example: Merging Cells with a Rich String.

_images/merge_rich.png

Note

Merged ranges generally don’t work in XlsxWriter when Workbook() 'constant_memory' mode is enabled.

worksheet.autofilter()

autofilter(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col)

Set the autofilter area in the worksheet.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.

The autofilter() method allows an autofilter to be added to a worksheet. An autofilter is a way of adding drop down lists to the headers of a 2D range of worksheet data. This allows users to filter the data based on simple criteria so that some data is shown and some is hidden.

_images/autofilter3.png

To add an autofilter to a worksheet:

worksheet.autofilter('A1:D11')
worksheet.autofilter(0, 0, 10, 3) # Same as above.

Filter conditions can be applied using the filter_column() or filter_column_list() methods.

See Working with Autofilters for more details.

worksheet.filter_column()

filter_column(col, criteria)

Set the column filter criteria.

Parameters:
  • col (int) – Filter column (zero-indexed).
  • criteria (string) – Filter criteria.

The filter_column method can be used to filter columns in a autofilter range based on simple conditions.

The conditions for the filter are specified using simple expressions:

worksheet.filter_column('A', 'x > 2000')
worksheet.filter_column('B', 'x > 2000 and x < 5000')

The col parameter can either be a zero indexed column number or a string column name.

It isn’t sufficient to just specify the filter condition. You must also hide any rows that don’t match the filter condition. See Working with Autofilters for more details.

worksheet.filter_column_list()

filter_column_list(col, filters)

Set the column filter criteria in Excel 2007 list style.

Parameters:
  • col (int) – Filter column (zero-indexed).
  • filters (list) – List of filter criteria to match.

The filter_column_list() method can be used to represent filters with multiple selected criteria:

worksheet.filter_column_list('A', ['March', 'April', 'May'])

The col parameter can either be a zero indexed column number or a string column name.

One or more criteria can be selected:

worksheet.filter_column_list('A', ['March'])
worksheet.filter_column_list('C', [100, 110, 120, 130])

It isn’t sufficient to just specify filters. You must also hide any rows that don’t match the filter condition. See Working with Autofilters for more details.

worksheet.set_selection()

set_selection(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col)

Set the selected cell or cells in a worksheet.

Parameters:
  • first_row (int) – The first row of the range. (All zero indexed.)
  • first_col (int) – The first column of the range.
  • last_row (int) – The last row of the range.
  • last_col (int) – The last col of the range.

The set_selection() method can be used to specify which cell or range of cells is selected in a worksheet. The most common requirement is to select a single cell, in which case the first_ and last_ parameters should be the same.

The active cell within a selected range is determined by the order in which first_ and last_ are specified.

Examples:

worksheet1.set_selection(3, 3, 3, 3)  # 1. Cell D4.
worksheet2.set_selection(3, 3, 6, 6)  # 2. Cells D4 to G7.
worksheet3.set_selection(6, 6, 3, 3)  # 3. Cells G7 to D4.
worksheet4.set_selection('D4')        # Same as 1.
worksheet5.set_selection('D4:G7')     # Same as 2.
worksheet6.set_selection('G7:D4')     # Same as 3.

As shown above, both row-column and A1 style notation are supported. See Working with Cell Notation for more details. The default cell selection is (0, 0), 'A1'.

worksheet.freeze_panes()

freeze_panes(row, col[, top_row, left_col])

Create worksheet panes and mark them as frozen.

Parameters:
  • row (int) – The cell row (zero indexed).
  • col (int) – The cell column (zero indexed).
  • top_row (int) – Topmost visible row in scrolling region of pane.
  • left_col (int) – Leftmost visible row in scrolling region of pane.

This freeze_panes method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes and to “freeze” these panes so that the splitter bars are not visible.

The parameters row and col are used to specify the location of the split. It should be noted that the split is specified at the top or left of a cell and that the method uses zero based indexing. Therefore to freeze the first row of a worksheet it is necessary to specify the split at row 2 (which is 1 as the zero-based index).

You can set one of the row and col parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split.

Examples:

worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 0)  # Freeze the first row.
worksheet.freeze_panes('A2')  # Same using A1 notation.
worksheet.freeze_panes(0, 1)  # Freeze the first column.
worksheet.freeze_panes('B1')  # Same using A1 notation.
worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 2)  # Freeze first row and first 2 columns.
worksheet.freeze_panes('C2')  # Same using A1 notation.

The parameters top_row and left_col are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the scrolling region of the panes. For example to freeze the first row and to have the scrolling region begin at row twenty:

worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 0, 20, 0)

You cannot use A1 notation for the top_row and left_col parameters.

See Example: Freeze Panes and Split Panes for more details.

worksheet.split_panes()

split_panes(x, y[, top_row, left_col])

Create worksheet panes and mark them as split.

Parameters:
  • x (float) – The position for the vertical split.
  • y (float) – The position for the horizontal split.
  • top_row (int) – Topmost visible row in scrolling region of pane.
  • left_col (int) – Leftmost visible row in scrolling region of pane.

The split_panes method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes. This method is different from the freeze_panes() method in that the splits between the panes will be visible to the user and each pane will have its own scroll bars.

The parameters y and x are used to specify the vertical and horizontal position of the split. The units for y and x are the same as those used by Excel to specify row height and column width. However, the vertical and horizontal units are different from each other. Therefore you must specify the y and x parameters in terms of the row heights and column widths that you have set or the default values which are 15 for a row and 8.43 for a column.

You can set one of the y and x parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split. The parameters top_row and left_col are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the bottom-right pane.

Example:

worksheet.split_panes(15, 0)     # First row.
worksheet.split_panes(0, 8.43)   # First column.
worksheet.split_panes(15, 8.43)  # First row and column.

You cannot use A1 notation with this method.

See Example: Freeze Panes and Split Panes for more details.

worksheet.set_zoom()

set_zoom(zoom)

Set the worksheet zoom factor.

Parameters:zoom (int) – Worksheet zoom factor.

Set the worksheet zoom factor in the range 10 <= zoom <= 400:

worksheet1.set_zoom(50)
worksheet2.set_zoom(75)
worksheet3.set_zoom(300)
worksheet4.set_zoom(400)

The default zoom factor is 100. It isn’t possible to set the zoom to “Selection” because it is calculated by Excel at run-time.

Note, set_zoom() does not affect the scale of the printed page. For that you should use set_print_scale().

worksheet.right_to_left()

right_to_left()

Display the worksheet cells from right to left for some versions of Excel.

The right_to_left() method is used to change the default direction of the worksheet from left-to-right, with the A1 cell in the top left, to right-to-left, with the A1 cell in the top right:

worksheet.right_to_left()

This is useful when creating Arabic, Hebrew or other near or far eastern worksheets that use right-to-left as the default direction.

worksheet.hide_zero()

hide_zero()

Hide zero values in worksheet cells.

The hide_zero() method is used to hide any zero values that appear in cells:

worksheet.hide_zero()

worksheet.set_tab_color()

set_tab_color()

Set the color of the worksheet tab.

Parameters:color (string) – The tab color.

The set_tab_color() method is used to change the color of the worksheet tab:

worksheet1.set_tab_color('red')
worksheet2.set_tab_color('#FF9900')  # Orange

The color can be a Html style #RRGGBB string or a limited number named colors, see Working with Colors.

See Example: Setting Worksheet Tab Colors for more details.

worksheet.protect()

protect()

Protect elements of a worksheet from modification.

Parameters:
  • password (string) – A worksheet password.
  • options (dict) – A dictionary of worksheet options to protect.

The protect() method is used to protect a worksheet from modification:

worksheet.protect()

The protect() method also has the effect of enabling a cell’s locked and hidden properties if they have been set. A locked cell cannot be edited and this property is on by default for all cells. A hidden cell will display the results of a formula but not the formula itself. These properties can be set using the set_locked() and set_hidden() format methods.

You can optionally add a password to the worksheet protection:

worksheet.protect('abc123')

Passing the empty string '' is the same as turning on protection without a password.

You can specify which worksheet elements you wish to protect by passing a dictionary in the options argument with any or all of the following keys:

# Default values shown.
options = {
    'objects':               False,
    'scenarios':             False,
    'format_cells':          False,
    'format_columns':        False,
    'format_rows':           False,
    'insert_columns':        False,
    'insert_rows':           False,
    'insert_hyperlinks':     False,
    'delete_columns':        False,
    'delete_rows':           False,
    'select_locked_cells':   True,
    'sort':                  False,
    'autofilter':            False,
    'pivot_tables':          False,
    'select_unlocked_cells': True,
}

The default boolean values are shown above. Individual elements can be protected as follows:

worksheet.protect('abc123', { 'insert_rows': 1 })

See also the set_locked() and set_hidden() format methods and Example: Enabling Cell protection in Worksheets.

Note

Worksheet level passwords in Excel offer very weak protection. They do not encrypt your data and are very easy to deactivate. Full workbook encryption is not supported by XlsxWriter since it requires a completely different file format and would take several man months to implement.

worksheet.set_default_row()

set_default_row(height, hide_unused_rows)

Set the default row properties.

Parameters:
  • height (float) – Default height. Optional, defaults to 15.
  • hide_unused_rows (bool) – Hide unused rows. Optional, defaults to False.

The set_default_row() method is used to set the limited number of default row properties allowed by Excel which are the default height and the option to hide unused rows. These parameters are an optimization used by Excel to set row properties without generating a very large file with an entry for each row.

To set the default row height:

worksheet.set_default_row(24)

To hide unused rows:

worksheet.set_default_row(hide_unused_rows=True)

See Example: Hiding Rows and Columns for more details.

worksheet.outline_settings()

outline_settings(visible, symbols_below, symbols_right, auto_style)

Control outline settings.

Parameters:
  • visible (bool) – Outlines are visible. Optional, defaults to True.
  • symbols_below (bool) – Show row outline symbols below the outline bar. Optional, defaults to True.
  • symbols_right (bool) – Show column outline symbols to the right of the outline bar. Optional, defaults to True.
  • auto_style (bool) – Use Automatic style. Optional, defaults to False.

The outline_settings() method is used to control the appearance of outlines in Excel. Outlines are described in Working with Outlines and Grouping:

worksheet1.outline_settings(False, False, False, True)

The 'visible' parameter is used to control whether or not outlines are visible. Setting this parameter to False will cause all outlines on the worksheet to be hidden. They can be un-hidden in Excel by means of the “Show Outline Symbols” command button. The default setting is True for visible outlines.

The 'symbols_below' parameter is used to control whether the row outline symbol will appear above or below the outline level bar. The default setting is True for symbols to appear below the outline level bar.

The 'symbols_right' parameter is used to control whether the column outline symbol will appear to the left or the right of the outline level bar. The default setting is True for symbols to appear to the right of the outline level bar.

The 'auto_style' parameter is used to control whether the automatic outline generator in Excel uses automatic styles when creating an outline. This has no effect on a file generated by XlsxWriter but it does have an effect on how the worksheet behaves after it is created. The default setting is False for “Automatic Styles” to be turned off.

The default settings for all of these parameters correspond to Excel’s default parameters.

The worksheet parameters controlled by outline_settings() are rarely used.

worksheet.set_vba_name()

set_vba_name(name)

Set the VBA name for the worksheet.

Parameters:name (string) – The VBA name for the worksheet.

The set_vba_name() method can be used to set the VBA codename for the worksheet (there is a similar method for the workbook VBA name). This is sometimes required when a vbaProject macro included via add_vba_project() refers to the worksheet. The default Excel VBA name of Sheet1, etc., is used if a user defined name isn’t specified.

See Working with VBA Macros for more details.