Working with Worksheet Tables

Tables in Excel are a way of grouping a range of cells into a single entity that has common formatting or that can be referenced from formulas. Tables can have column headers, autofilters, total rows, column formulas and default formatting.

_images/tables12.png

For more information see An Overview of Excel Tables in the Microsoft Office documentation.

Note

Tables aren’t available in XlsxWriter when Workbook() 'constant_memory' mode is enabled.

add_table()

Tables are added to a worksheet using the add_table() method:

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {options})

The data range can be specified in ‘A1’ or ‘Row/Column’ notation (see Working with Cell Notation):

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7')
# Same as:
worksheet.add_table(2, 1, 6, 5)
_images/tables1.png

The options parameter should be a dict containing the parameters that describe the table options and data. The available options are:

data
autofilter
header_row
banded_columns
banded_rows
first_column
last_column
style
total_row
columns
name

These options are explained below. There are no required parameters and the options parameter is itself optional if no options are specified (as shown above).

data

The data parameter can be used to specify the data in the cells of the table:

data = [
    ['Apples', 10000, 5000, 8000, 6000],
    ['Pears',   2000, 3000, 4000, 5000],
    ['Bananas', 6000, 6000, 6500, 6000],
    ['Oranges',  500,  300,  200,  700],

]

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'data': data})
_images/tables2.png

Table data can also be written separately, as an array or individual cells:

# These statements are the same as the single statement above.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7')
worksheet.write_row('B4', data[0])
worksheet.write_row('B5', data[1])
worksheet.write_row('B6', data[2])
worksheet.write_row('B7', data[3])

Writing the cell data separately is occasionally required when you need to control the write_() methods used to populate the cells or if you wish to modify individual cell formatting.

The data structure should be an list of lists holding row data as shown above.

header_row

The header_row parameter can be used to turn on or off the header row in the table. It is on by default:

# Turn off the header row.
worksheet.add_table('B4:F7', {'header_row': False})
_images/tables4.png

The header row will contain default captions such as Column 1, Column 2, etc. These captions can be overridden using the columns parameter below.

autofilter

The autofilter parameter can be used to turn on or off the autofilter in the header row. It is on by default:

# Turn off the default autofilter.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'autofilter': False})
_images/tables3.png

The autofilter is only shown if the header_row is on. Filter conditions within the table are not supported.

banded_rows

The banded_rows parameter can be used to create rows of alternating color in the table. It is on by default:

# Turn off banded rows.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'banded_rows': False})
_images/tables6.png

banded_columns

The banded_columns parameter can be used to used to create columns of alternating color in the table. It is off by default:

# Turn on banded columns.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'banded_columns': True})

See the above image.

first_column

The first_column parameter can be used to highlight the first column of the table. The type of highlighting will depend on the style of the table. It may be bold text or a different color. It is off by default:

# Turn on highlighting for the first column in the table.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'first_column': True})
_images/tables5.png

last_column

The last_column parameter can be used to highlight the last column of the table. The type of highlighting will depend on the style of the table. It may be bold text or a different color. It is off by default:

# Turn on highlighting for the last column in the table.
worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'last_column': True})

See the above image.

style

The style parameter can be used to set the style of the table. Standard Excel table format names should be used (with matching capitalization):

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'data': data,
                              'style': 'Table Style Light 11'})
_images/tables11.png

The default table style is ‘Table Style Medium 9’.

name

By default tables are named Table1, Table2, etc. The name parameter can be used to set the name of the table:

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'name': 'SalesData'})

If you override the table name you must ensure that it doesn’t clash with an existing table name and that it follows Excel’s requirements for table names, see the Microsoft Office documentation.

If you need to know the name of the table, for example to use it in a formula, you can get it as follows:

table = worksheet.add_table('B3:F7')
table_name = table.name

total_row

The total_row parameter can be used to turn on the total row in the last row of a table. It is distinguished from the other rows by a different formatting and also with dropdown SUBTOTAL functions:

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'total_row': True})
_images/tables9.png

The default total row doesn’t have any captions or functions. These must by specified via the columns parameter below.

columns

The columns parameter can be used to set properties for columns within the table.

_images/tables7.png

The sub-properties that can be set are:

header
header_format
formula
total_string
total_function
total_value
format

The column data must be specified as a list of dicts. For example to override the default ‘Column n’ style table headers:

worksheet.add_table('B3:F7', {'data': data,
                              'columns': [{'header': 'Product'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 1'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 2'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 3'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 4'},
                                          ]})

See the resulting image above.

If you don’t wish to specify properties for a specific column you pass an empty hash ref and the defaults will be applied:

...
columns, [
    {header, 'Product'},
    {header, 'Quarter 1'},
    {},                     # Defaults to 'Column 3'.
    {header, 'Quarter 3'},
    {header, 'Quarter 4'},
]
...

Column formulas can by applied using the column formula property:

formula = '=SUM(Table8[@[Quarter 1]:[Quarter 4]])'

worksheet.add_table('B3:G7', {'data': data,
                              'columns': [{'header': 'Product'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 1'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 2'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 3'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 4'},
                                          {'header': 'Year',
                                           'formula': formula},
                                          ]})
_images/tables8.png

The Excel 2007 style [#This Row] and Excel 2010 style @ structural references are supported within the formula. However, other Excel 2010 additions to structural references aren’t supported and formulas should conform to Excel 2007 style formulas. See the Microsoft documentation on Using structured references with Excel tables for details.

As stated above the total_row table parameter turns on the “Total” row in the table but it doesn’t populate it with any defaults. Total captions and functions must be specified via the columns property and the total_string and total_function sub properties:

options = {'data': data,
           'total_row': 1,
           'columns': [{'header': 'Product', 'total_string': 'Totals'},
                       {'header': 'Quarter 1', 'total_function': 'sum'},
                       {'header': 'Quarter 2', 'total_function': 'sum'},
                       {'header': 'Quarter 3', 'total_function': 'sum'},
                       {'header': 'Quarter 4', 'total_function': 'sum'},
                       {'header': 'Year',
                        'formula': '=SUM(Table10[@[Quarter 1]:[Quarter 4]])',
                        'total_function': 'sum'
                        },
                       ]}

# Add a table to the worksheet.
worksheet.add_table('B3:G8', options)

The supported totals row SUBTOTAL functions are:

average
count_nums
count
max
min
std_dev
sum
var

User defined functions or formulas aren’t supported.

It is also possible to set a calculated value for the total_function using the total_value sub property. This is only necessary when creating workbooks for applications that cannot calculate the value of formulas automatically. This is similar to setting the value optional property in write_formula():

options = {'data': data,
           'total_row': 1,
           'columns': [{'total_string': 'Totals'},
                       {'total_function': 'sum', 'total_value': 150},
                       {'total_function': 'sum', 'total_value': 200},
                       {'total_function': 'sum', 'total_value': 333},
                       {'total_function': 'sum', 'total_value': 124},
                       {'formula': '=SUM(Table10[@[Quarter 1]:[Quarter 4]])',
                        'total_function': 'sum',
                        'total_value': 807}]}

Formatting can also be applied to columns, to the column data using format and to the header using header_format:

currency_format = workbook.add_format({'num_format': '$#,##0'})
wrap_format     = workbook.add_format({'text_wrap': 1})

worksheet.add_table('B3:D8', {'data': data,
                              'total_row': 1,
                              'columns': [{'header': 'Product'},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 1',
                                           'total_function': 'sum',
                                           'format': currency_format},
                                          {'header': 'Quarter 2',
                                           'header_format': wrap_format,
                                           'total_function': 'sum',
                                           'format': currency_format}]})
_images/tables12.png

Standard XlsxWriter Format object objects are used for this formatting. However, they should be limited to numerical formats for the columns and simple formatting like text wrap for the headers. Overriding other table formatting may produce inconsistent results.

Example

All of the images shown above are taken from Example: Worksheet Tables.